Remote Sensing  :   Imaging,  Image processing,  GIS,   GPS

Remote Sensing Technology, Imaging, Image Processing, Geographical Information System,  Global  Positioning System, acquiring  information   for civil  &  military   applications  are  addressed .

Remote Sensing  is  a technology of acquiring information (spatial, spectral, temporal), about materials, objects, areas, or phenomenon, observed on Earth or other planets or the entire Universe using instruments/sensors located at a distance not having direct contact. A bit of history about remote sensing is stated below.


The technology of modern remote sensing began with the invention of the camera more than 150 years ago.


The idea of looking down at the Earth's surface emerged in the 1840s when pictures were taken from cameras carried in the  tethered balloons for purposes of topographic mapping.


During first World War (1914 -18),  the cameras mounted on airplanes provided aerial views of fairly large surface areas that proved very useful in military reconnaissance.


After World War II, in 1946, V-2 rockets acquired from Germany were launched to high altitude contained cameras that took pictures as the vehicle ascended.


The aerial photograph remained the single standard tool for depicting the surface from a vertical or oblique perspective until the early 1960s.


Then emerged the space program : in 1957 the Sputnik I  (USSR)  and  in  1958  the Explorer I (USA),  were  the first two Earth-orbiting satellites acquired  photographs. Since then many earth observation satellites were launched owned many nations for both civil and military need.


Only few countries, USA, France, India, and Israel have highly efficient commercial Earth Remote Sensing programs. They offer image resolution 1 meter and less. More importantly, they regularly supplement the space segment with new satellite and hold the positions as the primary suppliers of space data.


Many other countries, Korea, Russia, Italy, U.K., JAPAN, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Thailand also have high resolution satellites mostly for their own need. The launch, orbit and Imaging characteristics of these satellites are indicated below. These satellites have resolutions 2.5 to 1 meter.

Articles &  Invited talks


Satellite Image, Source for Terrestrial Information, Threat to National Security

by R C Chakraborty,  December 30, 2007 :  Invited talk   on “Information Security”, a short  term course at MANIT Bhopal, Dec. 10 -14, 2007.

An over view of Imaging satellite, Globalization of terrestrial information and Views express about National security. Remote sensing, Communication, and the Global Positioning satellite Systems; Concept of Remote Sensing - Satellite Images  Of  Different Resolution, Desired Spatial Resolution;  Covert Military Line up in 1950s, Concept Of Freedom Of International Space - Roots Of Remote Sensing Satellites, Land Remote Sensing Act of 1992, Popular Commercial Earth Surface Imaging satellites - Landsat, SPOT and Pleiades, IRS and Cartosat, IKONOS, OrbView & GeoEye, EarlyBird, QuickBird, WorldView, EROS; Orbits and Imaging characteristics of the satellites; Commercial Earth Surface Imaging satellites – KOMPSAT, Resurs DK, Cosmo/Skymed, DMCii, ALOS, RazakSat, FormoSAT, THEOS; Applications  of  Very High Resolution Imaging Satellites; Commercial Satellite Imagery Companies; National Security and International Regulations – United Nations , United States , India; Concern about National  Security -  Views expressed.




Globalization of Terrestrial Information

by R C Chakraborty, MIL,Jul 13, 2006,  Vol XXXII (No. 7), Jul 2006, International Reporter New Delhi, Thursday, July 13, 2006.

Exploring the views reported in the world wide web about security related challenges vis-a-vis the technology enabling characteristics of the present times in creating a transparent globe where anyone can get basic information about anyone else, I feel : Google Earth and their competitors MSN Virtual Earth, TerraServer, and TerraFly and others are trying to bring a revolution in “Globalization of Terrestrial Information” about the world we live in. However, suggesting few measures that will safeguard the security aspects.








Links for study materials, course work

Digital Image Processing




 Updated  Dec. 20,  2015

Remote sensing technology, acquiring information, civil & military applications.

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